Vala's syntax is an synthesis of C# and Java's. As a result, most of this will be familiar to programmers who know any C-like language.
Scope is defined using braces. An object or reference is only valid between
}. These are also the delimiters used to define classes, methods, code blocks etc, so they automatically have their own scope. Vala is not strict about where variables are declared.
An identifier is defined by its type and a name, e.g.
int c meaning an integer called c. In the case of value types this also creates an object of the given type. For reference types these just define a new reference that doesn't initially point to anything.
Identifier names may be any combination of letters ([a-z], [A-Z]), underscores and digits. However, to define or refer to an identifier with a name that either starts with a digit or is a keyword, you must prefix it with the '@' character. This character is not considered a part of the name. For example, you can name a method foreach by writing
@foreach, even though this is a reserved Vala keyword. You can omit the '@' character when it can be unambiguously interpreted as an identifier name, such as in "foo.foreach()".
Reference types are instantiated using the
new operator and the name of a construction method, which is usually just the name of the type, e.g.
Object o = new Object() creates a new Object and makes o a reference to it.